BGP Communities

Stellar Technologies leverages BGP Standard Communities to provide granular control of internal and external traffic engineering. This document describes the BGP Communities implemented in AS14525. The information contained herein should be considered authoritative for this purpose.

Well-Known Communities

AS14525 supports some well-known BGP communities for routing and export control.

CommunityDescription
65535:1NO_EXPORT Don't export outside AS14525
RFC1997
65535:2NO_ADVERTISE Don't export to any other peer, internal or external
RFC1997
65535:666BLACKHOLE Blackhole traffic to any IPv4 /32 or IPv6 /128 route
RFC7999

AS14525 Communities

Originated Route Types

Routes to destinations inside AS14525.

CommunityDescription
14525:1Originated Any
14525:2Global Aggregate
14525:3Regional Aggregate
14525:4Metro Aggregate
14525:5POP Aggregate
14525:6Specific Prefix

External Route Types

Routes to destinations outside AS14525.

CommunitiyDescription
14525:1xCustomer Route
14525:2xPrivate Peer Route
14525:3xPublic Peer/IX Route
14525:4xTransit Route

In external route type communties, x corresponds to an arbitrary internal identifier. For the purposes of regular expression filtering, one should use a pattern such as ^14525:1[0-9]$ if the intent is to filter all customer routes.

Security Signaling

Remotely Triggered Black Hole Filtering

Customers and peers may signal to AS14525 to automatically blackhole any host prefix (IPv4 /32 or IPv6 /128) in their allowed address space.

Upon import, routes with a blackhole community are propagated to other AS14525 routers, and all traffic to the host is discarded globally. Routes with a blackhole community also have the no-export community appended, so they are never exported from AS14525.

CommunityDescription
14525:666Blackhole traffic to any host route. Equivalent to well-known BLACKHOLE community.
Blackhole Community

While blackhole communities are accepted from transit peers, they are only accepted on routes with an AS_PATH length of 1 (directly originated).

Origin Identifiers

CommunityDescription
14525:0Any route that has ingressed or egressed AS14525
14525:1xxxRoutes from Region xxx
14525:2xxxRoutes from Country xxx
14525:30xxRoutes from Metro xxx
14525:4xxxRoutes from Point of Presence (POP) xxx
14525:9xxxRoutes from a specific Peer xxx

Region IDs

Region ID numbers map to UN M.49 identifiers.

Expand...
RegionID
Northern Africa15
Eastern Africa14
Middle Africa17
Southern Africa18
Western Africa11
Caribbean29
Central America13
South America5
North America21
Asia142
Europe150
Australia53
New Zealand53
Micronesia57
Polynesia61

Country IDs

Country ID numbers map to ISO 3166-1 country identifiers.

Expand...
NameCodeID
AfghanistanAF4
Åland IslandsAX248
AlbaniaAL8
AlgeriaDZ12
American SamoaAS16
AndorraAD20
AngolaAO24
AnguillaAI660
AntarcticaAQ10
Antigua and BarbudaAG28
ArgentinaAR32
ArmeniaAM51
ArubaAW533
AustraliaAU36
AustriaAT40
AzerbaijanAZ31
BahamasBS44
BahrainBH48
BangladeshBD50
BarbadosBB52
BelarusBY112
BelgiumBE56
BelizeBZ84
BeninBJ204
BermudaBM60
BhutanBT64
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)BO68
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBQ535
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBA70
BotswanaBW72
Bouvet IslandBV74
BrazilBR76
British Indian Ocean TerritoryIO86
Brunei DarussalamBN96
BulgariaBG100
Burkina FasoBF854
BurundiBI108
Cabo VerdeCV132
CambodiaKH116
CameroonCM120
CanadaCA124
Cayman IslandsKY136
Central African RepublicCF140
ChadTD148
ChileCL152
ChinaCN156
Christmas IslandCX162
Cocos (Keeling) IslandsCC166
ColombiaCO170
ComorosKM174
CongoCG178
Congo, Democratic Republic of theCD180
Cook IslandsCK184
Costa RicaCR188
Côte d'IvoireCI384
CroatiaHR191
CubaCU192
CuraçaoCW531
CyprusCY196
CzechiaCZ203
DenmarkDK208
DjiboutiDJ262
DominicaDM212
Dominican RepublicDO214
EcuadorEC218
EgyptEG818
El SalvadorSV222
Equatorial GuineaGQ226
EritreaER232
EstoniaEE233
EswatiniSZ748
EthiopiaET231
Falkland Islands (Malvinas)FK238
Faroe IslandsFO234
FijiFJ242
FinlandFI246
FranceFR250
French GuianaGF254
French PolynesiaPF258
French Southern TerritoriesTF260
GabonGA266
GambiaGM270
GeorgiaGE268
GermanyDE276
GhanaGH288
GibraltarGI292
GreeceGR300
GreenlandGL304
GrenadaGD308
GuadeloupeGP312
GuamGU316
GuatemalaGT320
GuernseyGG831
GuineaGN324
Guinea-BissauGW624
GuyanaGY328
HaitiHT332
Heard Island and McDonald IslandsHM334
Holy SeeVA336
HondurasHN340
Hong KongHK344
HungaryHU348
IcelandIS352
IndiaIN356
IndonesiaID360
Iran (Islamic Republic of)IR364
IraqIQ368
IrelandIE372
Isle of ManIM833
IsraelIL376
ItalyIT380
JamaicaJM388
JapanJP392
JerseyJE832
JordanJO400
KazakhstanKZ398
KenyaKE404
KiribatiKI296
Korea (Democratic People's Republic of)KP408
Korea, Republic ofKR410
KuwaitKW414
KyrgyzstanKG417
Lao People's Democratic RepublicLA418
LatviaLV428
LebanonLB422
LesothoLS426
LiberiaLR430
LibyaLY434
LiechtensteinLI438
LithuaniaLT440
LuxembourgLU442
MacaoMO446
MadagascarMG450
MalawiMW454
MalaysiaMY458
MaldivesMV462
MaliML466
MaltaMT470
Marshall IslandsMH584
MartiniqueMQ474
MauritaniaMR478
MauritiusMU480
MayotteYT175
MexicoMX484
Micronesia (Federated States of)FM583
Moldova, Republic ofMD498
MonacoMC492
MongoliaMN496
MontenegroME499
MontserratMS500
MoroccoMA504
MozambiqueMZ508
MyanmarMM104
NamibiaNA516
NauruNR520
NepalNP524
NetherlandsNL528
New CaledoniaNC540
New ZealandNZ554
NicaraguaNI558
NigerNE562
NigeriaNG566
NiueNU570
Norfolk IslandNF574
North MacedoniaMK807
Northern Mariana IslandsMP580
NorwayNO578
OmanOM512
PakistanPK586
PalauPW585
Palestine, State ofPS275
PanamaPA591
Papua New GuineaPG598
ParaguayPY600
PeruPE604
PhilippinesPH608
PitcairnPN612
PolandPL616
PortugalPT620
Puerto RicoPR630
QatarQA634
RéunionRE638
RomaniaRO642
Russian FederationRU643
RwandaRW646
Saint BarthélemyBL652
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSH654
Saint Kitts and NevisKN659
Saint LuciaLC662
Saint Martin (French part)MF663
Saint Pierre and MiquelonPM666
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesVC670
SamoaWS882
San MarinoSM674
Sao Tome and PrincipeST678
Saudi ArabiaSA682
SenegalSN686
SerbiaRS688
SeychellesSC690
Sierra LeoneSL694
SingaporeSG702
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)SX534
SlovakiaSK703
SloveniaSI705
Solomon IslandsSB90
SomaliaSO706
South AfricaZA710
South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsGS239
South SudanSS728
SpainES724
Sri LankaLK144
SudanSD729
SurinameSR740
Svalbard and Jan MayenSJ744
SwedenSE752
SwitzerlandCH756
Syrian Arab RepublicSY760
Taiwan, Province of ChinaTW158
TajikistanTJ762
Tanzania, United Republic ofTZ834
ThailandTH764
Timor-LesteTL626
TogoTG768
TokelauTK772
TongaTO776
Trinidad and TobagoTT780
TunisiaTN788
TurkeyTR792
TurkmenistanTM795
Turks and Caicos IslandsTC796
TuvaluTV798
UgandaUG800
UkraineUA804
United Arab EmiratesAE784
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandGB826
United States of AmericaUS840
United States Minor Outlying IslandsUM581
UruguayUY858
UzbekistanUZ860
VanuatuVU548
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)VE862
Viet NamVN704
Virgin Islands (British)VG92
Virgin Islands (U.S.)VI850
Wallis and FutunaWF876
Western SaharaEH732
YemenYE887
ZambiaZM894
ZimbabweZW716

Metro IDs

Metros are groups of Points of Presense (POPs) that are geographically and performantly close to one or more groups of customers.

NameID
US West01
US Hawaii02
US Central03

POP IDs

Each Point of Presence is assigned a unique identifier for the purposes of identification and routing control.

NameIDLocationFacilityRegionCountryRegion
phx01001Phoenix, AZEdgeConneX ECDPHX01US WestUSNorth America
las01002Las Vegas, NVSwitch Las Vegas 7US WestUSNorth America
hnl01003Honolulu, HIDRFortressUS HawaiiUSNorth America
dtn01003Dayton, OHIron Mountain OHS-1US CentralUSNorth America

Peer IDs

ASNNameTypeID
174Cogent CommunicationsTransit001
6939Hurricane ElectricTranist002
1299Telia CarrierTranist003
3257GTT CommunicationsTranist004
209CenturyLinkTranist005
701VerizonTranist006
40300DRFortress: DRFConnectTranist007
40300DRFortress: DRF-IXPublic Peer008
13335CloudflarePrivate Peer009
tip

All Origin ID communities are exported to transit, direct, IXP, and customer peers.

Legacy Communities

CommunityDescriptionNotes
14525:50xxMetro Aggregate, where xx is equal to the Metro ID.Currently used to control export of routes within a metro area.

Routing Control

The following communities are used to influence routing decisions within AS14525. Routing control communities are never exported to external peers of AS14525.

Local Preference

Levels

Each local preference communitiy maps to a specific level of preference allowed for the peer type.

Peer TypeDefaultLevel 1Level 2Level 3
Transit150
Public Peer200
Private Peer25050150250
Customer35050250350
Peer Local Preference

Transit peers may use the local preference communities, however they will only be applied to routes with an AS_PATH length of 1 (directly originated). Local preference communities are not accepted from public peers (IX route servers).

Communities

When using a local preference community, the corresponding local preference will be applied based on peer type.

CommunityDescription
14525:10001Set Local Preference to Level 1
14525:10002Set Local Preference to Level 2
14525:10003Set Local Preference to Level 3

AS Path Prepend

Customers and peers may signal AS14525 to automatically prepend 14525 to route announcements. Prepend communities are only accepted from customers, direct peers, and transit peer routes with an AS_PATH length of 1.

note

Prepending occurs on export from AS14525

CommunityDescription
14525:11000Prepend 14525 1x to all peers & customers
14525:21000Prepend 14525 2x to all peers & customers
14525:31000Prepend 14525 3x to all peers & customers
14525:11xxxPrepend 14525 1x to all peers with ID xxx
14525:21xxxPrepend 14525 2x to all peers with ID xxx
14525:31xxxPrepend 14525 3x to all peers with ID xxx
14525:12xxxPrepend 14525 1x to all peers in Region xxx
14525:22xxxPrepend 14525 2x to all peers in Region xxx
14525:32xxxPrepend 14525 3x to all peers in Region xxx
14525:13xxxPrepend 14525 1x to all customers in Region xxx
14525:23xxxPrepend 14525 2x to all customers in Region xxx
14525:33xxxPrepend 14525 3x to all customers in Region xxx
14525:14xxxPrepend 14525 1x to all peers in Country xxx
14525:24xxxPrepend 14525 2x to all peers in Country xxx
14525:34xxxPrepend 14525 3x to all peers in Country xxx
14525:15xxxPrepend 14525 1x to all customers in Country xxx
14525:25xxxPrepend 14525 2x to all customers in Country xxx
14525:35xxxPrepend 14525 3x to all customers in Country xxx
14525:16xxxPrepend 14525 1x to all peers in Metro xxx
14525:26xxxPrepend 14525 2x to all peers in Metro xxx
14525:36xxxPrepend 14525 3x to all peers in Metro xxx
14525:17xxxPrepend 14525 1x to all customers in Metro xxx
14525:27xxxPrepend 14525 2x to all customers in Metro xxx
14525:37xxxPrepend 14525 3x to all customers in Metro xxx
14525:18xxxPrepend 14525 1x to all peers in POP xxx
14525:28xxxPrepend 14525 2x to all peers in POP xxx
14525:38xxxPrepend 14525 3x to all peers in POP xxx
14525:19xxxPrepend 14525 1x to all customers in POP xxx
14525:29xxxPrepend 14525 2x to all customers in POP xxx
14525:39xxxPrepend 14525 3x to all customers in POP xxx

Examples

Prepend Prepend 1x to all Customers & Peers
Cisco IOS
!
ip prefix-list prepend1 permit 192.0.2.0/24
!
route-map as14525-out permit 10
match ip address prefix-list prepend1
set community 14525:11000
route-map as14525-out permit 20
!
router bgp 64496
neighbor 198.51.100.1 remote-as 14525
address-family ipv4 unicast
neighbor 198.51.100.1 route-map as14525-out out
!
Juniper JunOS
set policy-options community as14525-prepend1 members 14525:11000
set policy-options prefix-list prepend1 192.0.2.0/24
set policy-options policy-statement as14525-out term prepend1 from prefix-list prepend1
set policy-options policy-statement as14525-out term prepend1 then community add as14525-prepend1
set policy-options policy-statement as14525-out then accept
set protocols bgp group ipv4-as14525 peer-as 14525
set protocols bgp group ipv4-as14525 neighbor 198.51.100.1
set protocols bgp group ipv4-as14525 export as14525-out
Prepend 2x to all Peers in Australia
Cisco IOS
!
ip prefix-list prepend2-australia permit 192.0.2.0/24
!
route-map as14525-out permit 10
match ip address prefix-list prepend2-australia
set community 14525:24036
route-map as14525-out permit 20
!
router bgp 64496
neighbor 198.51.100.1 remote-as 14525
address-family ipv4 unicast
neighbor 198.51.100.1 route-map as14525-out out
Juniper JunOS
set policy-options community as14525-prepend2-australia members 14525:24036
set policy-options prefix-list prepend2-australia 192.0.2.0/24
set policy-options policy-statement as14525-out term prepend from prefix-list prepend2-australia
set policy-options policy-statement as14525-out term prepend then community add as14525-prepend2-australia
set policy-options policy-statement as14525-out then accept
set protocols bgp group ipv4-as14525 peer-as 14525
set protocols bgp group ipv4-as14525 neighbor 198.51.100.1
set protocols bgp group ipv4-as14525 export as14525-out
important

Because 14525 is automatically prepended to all route announcements, using the above prepend communities yields an AS_PATH of 14525 + N where N is the number of prepends. For example:

Given a customer ASN of 64496, and a customer prefix of 192.0.2.0/24, a standard route announcement would look like:

Prefix AS_PATH
192.0.2.0/24 14525 64496 i

For each available prepend options, the route announcement would look like one of the below examples on export from AS14525:

1x Prepend
Prefix AS_PATH
192.0.2.0/24 14525 14525 64496 i
2x Prepend
Prefix AS_PATH
192.0.2.0/24 14525 14525 14525 64496 i
3x Prepend
Prefix AS_PATH
192.0.2.0/24 14525 14525 14525 14525 64496 i

Export Control

No Export

Routes with a No Export community attached are immediately rejected on export, prior to any other policy being applied.

CommunityDescriptionSupport Status
14525:40001Don't export outside of AS14525. Equivalent to well-known NO_EXPORT community.Supported
14525:40002Don't export to any other peer, internal or external. Equivalent to well-known NO_ADVERTISE community.Supported
14525:40003Don't export to peers. Equivalent to well-known NO_EXPORT community, but only applies to peers, not customers.Not yet supported
14525:40004Don't export to customers. Equivalent to well-known NO_EXPORT community, but only applies to customers, not peers.Not yet supported
14525:41xxxDon't export to Peer xxxSupported
14525:42xxxDon't export to peers in Region xxx.Not yet supported
14525:43xxxDon't export to peers in Country xxx.Not yet supported
14525:44xxxDon't export to peers in Metro xxx.Not yet supported
14525:45xxxDon't export to peers in POP xxx.Not yet supported
14525:46xxxDon't export to customers in Region xxx.Not yet supported
14525:47xxxDon't export to customers in Country xxx.Not yet supported
14525:48xxxDon't export to customers in Metro xxx.Not yet supported
14525:49xxxDon't export to customers in POP xxx.Not yet supported
Export Only

Routes with an Export Only community attached are immediately rejected on export by any routers where the region, country, metro, or POP does not match the ID specified.

CommunityDescriptionSupport Status
14525:51xxxExport only to Peer xxxSupported
14525:52xxxExport only to peers in Region xxxNot yet supported
14525:53xxxExport only to peers in Country xxxNot yet supported
14525:54xxxExport only to peers in Metro xxxNot yet supported
14525:55xxxExport only to peers in POP xxxNot yet supported
14525:56xxxExport only to customers in Region xxxNot yet supported
14525:57xxxExport only to customers in Country xxxNot yet supported
14525:58xxxExport only to customers in Metro xxxNot yet supported
14525:59xxxExport only to customers in POP xxxNot yet supported

Changes and Version Control

Where notice of an impending change is deemed necessary, Stellar Technologies will make every attempt to notify affected customers or peers if it is determined that any impact will occur.

Stellar Technologies Inc accepts no liability whatsoever for damages or losses suffered by third parties as a result of their reliance on the information contained herein. By making use of any of information contained herein, the user acknowledges and agrees to these conditions.